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Finally, each leaf was carefully pasted into a frame to stop this process. Old English Glossary for Beowulf and the Finnesburh Fragment. Jonathan Slocum, University of Texas at Austin, Linguistics Research Center.
Of course the frames and the paste holding them in place obliterated a little more of the text! Click a letter or ligature on the right side of the page to see a matching list of words.
Fortunately, many of the lost words were recovered from a copy made before the manuscript deteriorated. Pronunciation practice, glossary, fonts, software, and more. Links to resources about language, literature, archaeology, Norman Invasion,and related topics.
Today, ultraviolet light and other technologies used in the Electronic Beowulf reveal erasures, text under the frames, and other characteristics of the manuscript that were previously undetectable.
I was reading over the Tolkien essay again, and found myself at the passage we discussed in class: "Folk-tales in being, as toldfor the typical folk-tale of course, is merely an abstract conception of research nowhere existing. ." From this quote in class, we ventured into the unexplainability of the origins of folk tales, in that if one traces its origins back, one always reaches a vanishing point.
However true this maybe, I think Tolkien is talking about something different.
Fussell also recounts instances in which the sporting spirit was to kick a football toward the enemy lines while attacking. Nevill, a company commander in the 8th East Surreys, who offered a prize to the platoon which, at the jump-off of the Somme attack, first kicked its football up to the German front line. Nevill, who kicked a ball apparently to signal the attack, was killed instantly.
________, “Ring-Giver, Hoard-Guardian: Two World Views in Beowulf.” Papers. Espéculo: Revista de Estudios Literarios 40 (2008) n.p. Barkley, H., “Tolkien, Beowulf and the Lords of the Ring.” Germanic Notes and Reviews 30 (1999): 1-4.
Aguilar Montero, Miquel, "Fundamentos teóricos de la épica universal en la literatura germánica altomedieval: El poema de Beowulf. ________, “Five Beowulf Notes.” Words, Texts and Manuscripts. ________, “The Conclusion of Wealhtheow’s Speech (Beowulf 1231).” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 91 (1990): 207-08. Bately, Janet, "Bravery and the Vocabulary of Bravery in Beowulf and The Battle of Maldon." Unlocking the Wordhord..
Beowulf is the first English literary masterpiece and one of the earliest European epics written in the vernacular, or native language, instead of literary Latin. For beginning students, with exercises to reinforce learning. Old English Phrases for the Traveler to Anglo-Saxon England.
The story, accessibly retold by Beowulf for Beginners, survives in one fragile manuscript copied by two scribes near the end of the 10th or the first quarter of the 11th century. The third edition of this title, in paperback and for Kindle, is notable as an accessible and innovative text for beginning students.
Twitterature: The World's Greatest Books in Twenty Tweets or Less. Adderley, Mark, "To beot or not to beot: Boasting in Beowulf." In Geardagum 29 (2009): 1-16.